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Writing standard operating procedure

Operating Procedures For Process Plants

Rev 3-November 2007 By Ian Sutton


operating procedure for process plant


free book sample - contents

operating procedures for process industries ebook
esbn: c60-802c-2c45-72c9

this 194 page book, "operating procedures for process industries" helps you organize while writing standard operating procedure (sop) so as to produce a high quality manual - one that the operators will actually want to use.


publisher's note: the author chose to rename this ebook while updating and adding the 40 or so pages. so the new title in the ebook you receive will be "procedures and training in the process industries". it is the same ebook as titled at the top of this page, just revised.


this ebook also describes how to write and publish the procedures as efficiently and as quickly as possible. the ebook emphasizes practical issues such as:


  • how to write procedures that can be kept up to date.

  • use of web-based modules.

  • how to develop a five volume structure that clearly distinguishes between operating instructions, troubleshooting and commissioning.

  • how to manage a procedure writing project.

  • types of emergency procedures and response plan.

  • how to link procedures with other elements of process safety management - particularly process safety information, change management, and training.

  • how to select the appropriate level of detail.

  • how to define operating limits, and how they should be used.


the subject matter presented here discusses the writing, publishing and use of operating procedures for process operations, covering industries such as chemicals manufacturing and distribution, refining, oil and gas operations, transportation and pipelines.


not only do high quality procedures help the managers and workers at a facility achieve high levels of safety and operability, it will typically be found that the process of writing the procedures will help determine better ways of operating and running the operation itself. for example, on a multi-shift system it is common for the personnel on each shift to develop their own way of running the unit for which they are responsible. each way may be quite acceptable and safe, and the differences between them may be minor. nevertheless one of the types of operation will be ipso facto superior to the others. the act of writing the procedures can generate a useful discussion as to which method to choose.


the ebook also describes how to write procedures so as to meet process safety management requirements. items such as links to process safety information, training and emergency response are discussed. also, the importance of temporary operating procedures as part of the change management process is described.


note: (title changed from original process plants to process industries,to to procedures and training in the process industries, then again to current title. that is an advantage of pdf ebooks over print, you can keep them current.)

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price:  us$59.99

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Free Online Book Sample Page


process safety management just 1 reason to buy now.

 ^  click on a picture above to see pages 13, 15 & 17 full size  ^


table of contents

chapter 1: procedures and training
definition of operating procedures
   written instructions
   design or operating intent
definition of maintenance procedures
definition of training
engineering the solution
quick assessment of operating procedures
the users
   experienced technicians
   less experienced technicians
   management / engineering
   dcs / scada programmers
   auditors, regulators and inspectors
process safety management
   1. participation, leadership and accountability
   2. information and quality management
   3. hazards analysis
   4. management of change
   5. pre-startup safety reviews
   11. emergency planning and response
safe limits
information manual
regulations, standards and guidance
   osha 29 cfr 1910.119 - process safety management regulation
   discussion of the psm standard
      written down
      initial start-up
      temporary operations
      emergency operations and shutdown
   the epa rmp rule

chapter 2:types of operating procedure
steady-state operating procedures
   types of steady-state procedure
   shift change
start-up procedures
shutdown procedures
   normal shutdown
temporary operations procedures
batch procedures
standard operating procedures

chapter 3:the operating manual
software analogy
   modular design
      connecting the modules
      if / then / else instructions
      modular operating manual
   data base structure
   top-down development
   limitations of modularity
design of an operating manual
   adding and removing modules
   numbering the modules
module design
   the title block
      procedure name
      module number
      purpose of the procedure
      revision number
      date of revision
      covered persons
      company / facility
      safe upper and lower limits
      special safety items
      equipment information
   the operating task instructions
      step number column
      discussion / illustration
   the authorization block
      written by
      approval - superintendent
      approval - manager
      authorization sheet
   overall module
   links to other procedures and manuals
   links to technical information
   two-page modules
content development
   level of detail
      level 1: overview / checklists
      level 2: equipment description
      level 3: valve detail
   sources of information
      existing procedures
      technician interviews
      engineering information
      vendor manuals
      process hazards analyses

chapter 4: writing and publishing

project organization
1. define the scope of work
   physical area / equipment covered
   types of procedure
   job task analysis
   design of the manual
   regulations / standards
   writer's guide
2. create the team
   steering committee
   project manager
   project lead
   technology expert
   publisher / webmaster
3. develop a detailed plan
   schedule and progress metric
   prepare the sops
4. collect information
   operator interviews
   existing procedures and vendor manuals
5. write the procedures
   draft releases
   plan to throw one away - you will anyway
6. review and sign
7. publish
potential difficulties
   poorly defined goals
   too many people
   extended review cycle
   lack of signatures
maintaining the procedures
   procedures modification process

chapter 5: writing guidelines
vigorous writing
   minimalist writing
   short, pithy instructions
   avoid repetition of instructions
   omit needless words
   omit adverbs
   short and old words
   omit wordy phrases and padded syllables
writing style
   imperative tense
   active voice
   reading grade level / eschew obfuscation
   list instructions singly
   implied instructions
   bulleted lists
conditional instructions
positive / negative instructions
   identification of equipment
   should / would / could
   the word 'you'
   the word 'this'
   arabic numerals
   adverbs and adjectives
   latinate abbreviations
   ambiguous words
cobblestone writing
repetition of messages
   danger, warning, caution, note
   proofreader marks
   iconic flow diagrams
   maps / plot plans
   white space
   paragraph formatting
   emphasis techniques
   heading styles
   page numbering
   single-sided versus double-sided printing
   the binder
multiple languages
legal issues
   trade secrets

chapter 6:troubleshooting and emergency response procedures
troubleshooting procedures
   elements of troubleshooting procedures
   guidance, not instructions
   structure of troubleshooting procedures
emergency procedures
   emergency training
   human response
      human error rate
      buddy loyalty
emergency response manual
   unit response
   site response
   external support
emergency procedure module

chapter 7: maintenance procedures

types of maintenance task
   condition-based maintenance
   scheduled maintenance
process energy control procedures
   1. remove the hazard
   2. double block and bleed
   3. positive isolation
   4. lockout
   5. administrative controls
the maintenance process
   plan the work
   job hazards analysis
   risk level
   prepare tools, equipment and personnel
   prepare work permit
   shutdown / isolate equipment
   perform the work
   close out the job
      check equipment integrity
      close out the permit
   handover to operations
job safe practices

chapter 8: training

elements of a training program
   initial / basic training
   facility-specific training
   abnormal situation management
   refresher training
procedures and training
verification of competence
management of a training program
   training matrix
   budget allocation
   measuring progress
regulations, standards and guidance

chapter 9: auditing
auditing of procedures
auditing of training

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