Industrial Training - The Best for Less

ABSTRACT for Process, Plant & Equipment UP-TIME

(Both 10 DVD Sets w/ Workbooks)

- Volume 1 Titles - 

Volume 2 - Volume 3

001.         Belt bucket elevator design notes.  Consists of a comprehensive set of notes to use in the design and fabrication of bucket elevators.  The design process is explained step by step including detailed clarification of the necessary mathematics.  A worked example is provided to show how the design is done. 

111.           Protecting bearings from dust and water. Protecting bearing from dust. Protection methods like labyrinth rings, rubber seals, felt seals and shaft mechanical seals are described. Choice of the appropriate shaft seal and seal configurations to protect against dust ingress is critical. Numerous shaft seal designs suited to dusty conditions are reviewed. Keywords: Particles, contamination, bearing, shaft, grease barrier, breather.

112.           Changing the service duty of a pump. When centrifugal pumps are modified to perform a different duty the new service head, flow and motor power characteristics are calculated from the Similarity Laws.  Keywords: impeller diameter, speed, power, affinity laws. [Contents] [TOP]

113.           Prevent flange leaks with proper bolting practices.  Bolts and gaskets behave like springs and unless flange bolts and nuts are properly tensioned the flange will leak.  The correct tightening torque depends on bolt diameter, material of construction, process pressure and bolt fabrication.  Keywords:  thread surface finish, yield strength, creep, bolting sequence, load cycling. [Contents] [TOP]

114.           Open trickle chutes for wet and sticky products.  For the effective flow of damp, cohesive (sticks to itself) products, a chute must be designed to maintain momentum.  Sufficient inclination is critical.  Keywords: gravity, wall friction, adhesion. [Contents] [TOP]

115.           The cost of maintenance destroys your capital investment returns.  When equipment is first selected the buyer has the choice to buy for quality and long trouble-free operating life or to buy based on least cost.  The least cost choice will result in high maintenance and operating expense for the life of the equipment.  When net present value cost of maintenance for cheap equipment is calculated in today’s dollars investors will discover that a large part of their capital will never earn them income but will be spent on maintenance and repair.  Keywords: replacement asset value, internal rate of return, cost of capital. [Contents] [TOP]

121.           Tracking large rotating equipment. Rotary dryers, kilns, mills and reactors turn on tires and trunnions.  Each tire is mounted to the rotating shell and revolves on two roller trunnions.  If the alignment between the tire and trunnions is lost due to wear, poor repair, installation error or impact, the equipment will need to be tracked.  Keywords: training, guide, steer, datum line, wear, axial, linear position. [Contents] [TOP]

122.           Ultrasonic level detectors. These instruments use high frequency sound bounced off a surface to determine distance.  They are often used as level detectors in tanks and silos. Long-lived, useful service depends on configuration of the tank roof and internals, material of construction compatibility with process chemicals, position on the roof, stillness and orientation of the surface being measured.  Keywords, silo, calibration, location, dip pipe. [Contents] [TOP]

123.           Chemical corrosion control. Chemical corrosion can destroy the containment materials in contact with a process.  Means exist to mitigate and even prevent chemical corrosion. Keywords: process conditions, material compatibility, resistant, coating, lining, stress corrosion, rate of corrosion, spark testing. [Contents] [TOP]

124.           Shaft sealing with a packed gland. This article discusses the use of compressed, stacked packing for shaft sealing.  Topics covered include an explanation of how packing works, what to consider when using packing, good installation practices and commissioning shaft packing.  Keywords: lantern ring, leakage, lubrication, stuffing box, valve stem.  [Contents] [TOP]

125.           Some quality paradigms are expensive. Quality is a mindset!  When a wise man is given the chance to buy quality items he does so because quality pays for itself.  A quality item lasts longer, runs better and looks good when others fade.  To change the way you think about quality takes a lot of experience with using poorer options.  When you are sitting down with your head in your hands wondering what can be done to get costs down, to get production up and how you are going to hit the key performance indicators, remember the importance of quality equipment, quality systems, quality training and your quality mindset!  Keywords: quality control. [Contents] [TOP]

131.           Rotating tire and trunnion wear. Roll mills, drum dryers, kilns, ball mills and rotating reactors usually turn on metal tires and trunnion rollers. Eventually the tires and rollers wear thin or fatigue and require repair or replacement.  Keywords:  surface hardness, steel, contact stress, metallurgy, bisalloy, casting. [Contents] [TOP]

132.           Bitumen roadway repairs. Tarmac surface repairs are a common daily occurrence.  To get long life from a bitumen repair there are several issues to consider.  This article reviews the major considerations. Keywords: asphalt, sub-base, traffic load, aggregate, slope, underground conditions. [Contents] [TOP]

133.           Grease – use the right one for the job.  The classification, selection and application of greases.  Greases are designed for specific applications and if used in the wrong service they will not be effective.  Compare the properties of greases and check those used in your equipment are suited to the service.  Keywords: base oil, thickener, additives, friction. [Contents] [TOP]

134.           A simple fault finding technique. Fixing plant and equipment about which you know little is daunting.  Here is a simple way to help you successfully fault find failed equipment. Keywords: system fault, repair, specialist, trace, investigate, telltale. [Contents] [TOP]

135.           The Continuous Improvement Method of Thomas Edison.  There is a good chance you can make astounding changes and achieve incredible performance improvements from your plant and equipment.  It can be done with the method used by Thomas Edison to solve his problems and make his discoveries.  Improvements in the order of 20% maintenance savings with 100% on-time achievement of production plans are possible.  The method is that of continuous improvement.  You start by proving it works for yourself first and then, once you are sure it works you introduce it to your people.  Keywords: continuous education.  [Contents] [TOP]

141.           When spinning equipment is out of balance.  Vibration from out-of -balance rotating equipment can be frightening.  The ground shakes, machines jump about, hold down bolts come loose and parts break.  An unbalanced rotating body will produce forces on its bearings and transmit them throughout its structure and into the foundations.  Keywords: rotor, centrifugal forces, balance quality.  [Contents] [TOP]

142.           Get mechanical seals working properly.  Mechanical seals are used to keep the bulk contents of rotating equipment such as pumps and compressors from escaping. They do this by sealing the shaft that protrudes from the casing.  They require quality installation and operation conditions for a long life. Keywords:  precision assembly, barrier fluid, stationary seal, rotary seal, alignment. [Contents] [TOP]

143.           Don’t run centrifugal pumps on the end of the curve.  Pumps are designed and selected to operate near their highest efficiency point.  If they operate at the right-hand end of the pump curve the likelihood of cavitation increases.  Keywords:  suction pressure, flow velocity, vapor pressure, duty point. [Contents] [TOP]

144.           Unfired pressure vessel inspections. Pressure vessels must be regularly inspected and be maintained in a safe operating condition.  New laws stipulate that all pressure vessels must have a Hazard Level rating which reflects the vessel’s safety risk.  The higher the risk the more stringent the requirements for operating and inspecting the vessel.  Keywords: receiver, non-destructive testing, internal inspection. [Contents] [TOP]

145.           Net positive suction head losses (or why you can suck through a straw).  Pumps cavitate and run dry when the pressure leading into them falls below the vapor pressure of what they are pumping.  At the vapor pressure the liquid boils into a vapor and the liquid never reaches the pump.  In order to know that the pressure to a pump is always above the vapor pressure it is necessary to calculate that the pressure losses from pipe friction and suction lift will not cause the pressure to drop under the vapor pressure.  The presence of dissolved gas in the liquid complicates the problem.  Keywords: cavitation, NPSH, net positive suction head required, net positive suction head available, vapor or vapor lock. [Contents] [TOP]

151.           How control valves work. Control valves regulate the flow of a liquid or gas by opening or closing internal passages.  They form part of a control loop used to control a process.  The control valves responds to instructions from the controller and adjusts the internal openings accordingly. Keywords:  sensor, set point, trim, actuator, sealing class, tuning, proportional, integral, derivative. [Contents] [TOP]

152.           Bridging in silos and hoppers. Bridging is the name given to the self-created arch that develops just above the outlet of a bulk material silo or hopper as it empties.  A bridge forms when wall friction holds up the ends of the arch.  To overcome bridging the wall friction must be reduced or prevented from occurring.  Keywords: live bottom, cohesive, powder, hopper design, angle of repose. [Contents] [TOP]

153.           Glued and applied coatings. Coatings provide industry with low cost solutions to difficult chemical corrosion problems.  This article covers the use of rubber, fiberglass, and epoxy linings.  Keywords:  rubber lining, resin, composite glass fibres, overlap joints, adhesive, primer, corrosion barrier, repair.  [Contents] [TOP]

154.           Vibration and its control. Vibration in equipment is the result of unbalanced forces.  Out-of-balance is corrected by adding or removing material so that when the equipment is operating the unbalance is controlled to an acceptable level. Keywords: spring stiffness, damping, center of rotation, center of mass, natural frequency, isolation mount, counter balance, out-of-phase.  [Contents] [TOP]

161.           Corrosion in agitated conditions. Chemical corrosion occurs at increased rates in agitated conditions.  Agitated conditions include stirred vessels and tanks, mixers and agitators, pumps, pipelines and valves.  Keywords: iso-corrosion curve, alloy metal, pitting corrosion, stress corrosion, corrosion barrier.  [Contents] [TOP]

162.           Keep gearboxes running. A gearbox is used to control the operating speed of industrial equipment. Proper selection, care and maintenance of gearboxes is critical.  Failure of the gearbox causes the equipment and associated plant to stop. Keywords: service duty, drive, breather, lubricant, oil analysis. [Contents] [TOP]

163.           Importance of fit, tolerance and clearance. Many equipment breakdowns and stoppages occur because of improper sizing between holes and shafts.  The shaft is too tight in the hole; the hole is off-center; one part is loose on another and slips out of place or does not seal as it should.  Keywords: size range, engineering drawings, dimensions.  [Contents] [TOP]

164.           Experiences with bucket elevators. Bucket elevators lift bulk materials from one level to another.  They are used on powders, granules, grain, chip shaped products and lumpy materials. They function well when designed properly for the duty, and used as designed.  Problems that can occur and possible remedies are noted. Keywords:  belt, pulley, tracking, tension, bucket, housing. [Contents] [TOP]

171.           Preheating welds. Weld preheating is the purposeful application of heat to warm metal to a desired temperature prior to welding. Preheating slows down the cooling rate of the weld and gives the metal more time to form a good microstructure, release internal stresses and dissipate hydrogen from the weld.  Keywords: thickness, weld puddle, cooling rate, temperature.  [Contents] [TOP]

172.           Can your spare parts be made locally? When spares cannot be purchased easily it becomes necessary to manufacture your own.  Local fabricators, foundries and machine shops can often make the item if you provide them with a design and specification.  Keywords:  casting, reverse engineering, metallurgy, original equipment manufacturer, second hand. [Contents] [TOP]

173.           Failure analysis of a gearbox, fan, bearing and shaft.  When equipment breaks unexpectedly it is good practice to investigate why it happened so that the root cause can be rectified and the problem prevented from again happening.  There are no mysterious causes, only poor systems or system failures.  It is not often that people intentionally sabotage plant and equipment.  By analyzing why a thing happened the lesson can be absorbed and changes made to business systems to reduce its probability of reoccurrence.  In this article four equipment failures are reviewed and investigated to determine their cause and the resulting necessary changes. Keywords: root cause failure analysis, failure mode. [Contents] [TOP]

174.           Maintenance Planning – make your planner successful.  The efficient use of men, materials and external resources requires coordination and preparation.  When a job starts everything needed to do the job must be at hand and must be right to use.  The maintenance planner does the preparation required prior to the start of a job.  The planner’s focus is to prepare everything needed to execute a job through to its successful completion and have it ready and on-hand before the job starts.  How well the planning job is done directly affects how efficiently the men do the work and how long it takes for it to be done.  Keywords: job scheduling, breakdown work. [Contents] [TOP]

181.           Job types on work orders. Historically numbers have been used to represent the work type.  As numbers are not a universal human method of description the work type is also described using words.  The proper choice of words is critical if classification errors are to be minimized. Keywords: CMMS, computerized management maintenance system, breakdown, corrective, work order, implementation. [Contents] [TOP]

182.           Isolation valves for different services. Valves can be used to both isolate and regulate liquid and gas flow.  Valve used for isolation duties must provide secure, tight shut-off. Consideration must be given to the nature of the process chemical, the quality of sealing and the impact of outside environmental occurrences.  Keywords: bubble tight, design pressure, leakage rate, fire rated, differential pressure. [Contents] [TOP]

183.           Polyethylene – its properties and uses. Polyethylene is one of the most commonly used engineering plastics.  Its chemical resistance properties and ease of fabrication makes it popular in the chemical industries.  Its molecular structure provides the key to its versatility.  Keywords:  HDPE, long chain macromolecule, thermoplastic, plastic welding.  [Contents] [TOP]

184.           Performance reviews.  One method to appraise people’s performance is by performance reviews.  Through use of a structured check sheet, key aspects of an employee’s performance are reviewed. The end result is an unbiased assessment of the employee’s current performance and a plan to improve it.  Keywords: rating scale, verifiable, performance standards. [Contents] [TOP]

185.           Maintenance planning and scheduling. The book “MAINTENANCE PLANNING AND SCHEDULING HANDBOOK” by Doc Palmer and published by McGraw Hill presents the recommended way to plan for a maintenance crew.  Keywords:  maintenance planning, scheduling, planner, performance, productivity, planner. [Contents] [TOP]

191.           Valuable secrets in every work order report.  The work order report is the maintainer’s opportunity to advise the engineer what problems exist with equipment out in the plant.  It can also provide an accurate record of what was found during the repair.  This makes it important that work order reports are completed in detail and are reviewed by managers and engineers.  Keywords: CMMS, computerized maintenance system, breakdown, corrective, work order, implementation. [Contents] [TOP]

192.           Heat welding of plastics. Welding can join thermoplastic parts together.  It can be by melting the surfaces and pressing them together or by extrusion welding with a filler rod. Several methods of welding are available.  Proper manual techniques are critical to success as is the pressure testing of pressure parts. Keywords: electro-fusion, butt welding, electro-socket welding, hot air gun, melt temperature. [Contents] [TOP]

193.           Making walkways and platforms. Stairs, walkways, platforms and ladders are required to be made to Australian Standard AS 1657.  This standard specifies the design requirements and the materials of construction to be used.   Keywords:  deflection, allowable load, live load, guard rails, connections, treads.  [Contents] [TOP]

194.           Radar level detectors. The radar sends a sub-millionth of a second pulse from an emitter and the return signal is detected at a receiver. The reflection’s time lapse is measured and electronically converted to a distance from the liquid surface. Installation peculiarities need to be understood and appreciated in order to provide a reliable operating set-up. Keyword:  antenna, spurious reflection, reference plane, emission cone. [Contents] [TOP]

195.           Agitator shaft thrust bearings. Vertical tank agitator bearings are required to take both radial and thrust loads.  To protect the gearbox it is common practice to install intermediate bearings on the shaft.  If these bearings are exposed to the process vapors then special care is needed to protect them from contamination and insure adequate lubrication. Keywords:  thrust bearing, bearing stool, roller bearing. [Contents] [TOP]

1101.       Job descriptions tell tradesmen what to do. The first words a maintainer will read when they pick up a work order is the job description.  The job description must tell him enough information about the work so he can understand what to do.  Keywords:  CMMS, computerized maintenance management system, planning, breakdown repair, corrective. [Contents] [TOP]

1102.       Heating liquid by steam sparging.  Steam is often used for heating liquids. The direct steam injection into the process is known as steam sparging.  The sparge design and location affect the efficiency of the process.  Keywords: boiling, heating water, temperature increase, injector, lance, boiler pressure, properties of steam.  [Contents] [TOP]

1103.       Separation and segregation of dangerous goods.  Safe use of dangerous goods includes recognizing when situations can arise where the consequence of a failure or error will result in danger to life, property or the environment.  One of the methods used to minimize risk when dealing with dangerous goods is by separation and segregation.  Keywords: Hazard, storage facility, control, emergency plan, MSDS, material safety data sheet. [Contents] [TOP]

1104.       Differential pressure transmitters. These instruments are used to detect pressure.  The sensing element is connected to the process by pipe work and flexes in proportion to the pressure. The resulting distortion produces an electric signal that is amplified and converted to a value on a read-out. Keywords:  pressure sensor, strain gauge, tank level, process pressure, pressure difference. [Contents] [TOP]

1105.       Experiences with magnetic (magdrive) pumps. Magnetic drive pumps come in three varieties – canned motor pumps, all metal pumps and plastic lined metal pumps. They are sealless and cannot leak into the environment.  Long, repair-free service life depends on recognizing the limitations of these pumps. Keyword:  separation liners, chemical compatibility, sediment, particles.  [Contents] [TOP]

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